Understanding Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Livestock


Understanding Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Livestock: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention


Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, also known as Septicaemic Pasteurellosis or Barbone disease, is a severe disease affecting livestock. 
Understanding Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Livestock: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

This blog post provides a comprehensive overview, covering its synonyms, introduction, etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, necropsy findings, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

I. Synonyms, Introduction, and Etiology:

Synonyms: Septicaemic Pasteurellosis and Barbone disease.
Introduction: Caused by Pasteurella multocida.
- Etiology: Types A to E linked to various diseases.

II. Epidemiology:

- Prevalence: Enzootic in tropical countries, economically significant in India.
- Outbreaks: Common in wet and humid weather.
- Morbidity and Fatality: Higher in buffaloes, with adult animals developing natural immunity.

III. Transmission and Host Affected:

- Transmission: Contaminated feed and water, ticks, and insect bites.
- Host Affected: Cattle, sheep, goats, yak, and water buffaloes highly susceptible. Horses and pigs less susceptible.

V. Pathogenesis:

- Entry: Organisms enter via tonsils, GI, and respiratory tracts.
- Circulation: Reaches heart, liver, and spleen, causing severe septicemia.
- Outcome: Often results in death within 24 hours; recovered animals develop immunity.

V. Clinical Signs:

- Symptoms: Acute septicaemic disease, fever, profuse salivation, sub-mucosal petechiation, depression, and warm, painful swellings.
- Respiratory Distress: Severe dyspnoea and enteritis in gastrointestinal form.

Clinical findings in Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

VI. Necropsy Findings:

- Hemorrhages: Generalized in serosa.
- Lungs: Edema, congestion, consolidation.
- Subcutaneous Area: Gelatinous fluid infiltration.
- Gastroenteritis: Haemorrhagic with thickening of interlobular septa.

Postmortem finding in Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

VII. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis:

- Methods: Clinical signs, blood smear examination, culture isolation, and Elisa.
- Differential Diagnosis: Mycoplasmosis, chronic respiratory diseases, parasitic infection, pneumonic pasteurellosis.

VIII. Treatment:

- Antibiotics: Oxytetracycline, Sulphadimidine, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Enrofloxacin, Ceftiofure.
- Anti-inflammatory: Betamethasone and Dexamethasone.

IX. Prevention and Control:

- Vaccine: Highly antigenic Pasteurella multocida strain, inactivated by formalin. Immunity lasts for about 6 months.
- Control Measures: Phenol treatment, vaccination before monsoon, stress avoidance.


Understanding haemorrhagic septicaemia is crucial for livestock health. 
This blog post has provided a comprehensive guide, covering its causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. By implementing effective control measures, including vaccination and stress reduction, farmers can protect their livestock from this economically significant disease.

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